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Research Methodology

This article is a part of the guide:

❶It goes without saying that reporting covers the part of the research process where the researcher writes a report to present his findings. Research must always be of high quality in order to produce knowledge that is applicable outside of the research setting.

What Does "research Is Organized Curiosity" Mean?

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Goals of Research

The difference between a thesis and a topic is that a thesis, also known as a thesis statement, is an assertion or conclusion regarding the interpretation You May Also Like Q: What Is the Importance of Human Life? What Is the Importance of Customer Care? What Is the Economic Importance of Arthropods? What Is the Economic Importance of Gymnosperms? What Is the Importance of Logic in Life? What Is a Priori Hypothesis? How would it be? Why do we give so much of emphasis to such an exercise?

Research means the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions. In other words, it is the collection of evidence or information for ascertaining an assumption or verifying some hypothesis.

It means a search for facts, answers to questions and solution to problems. Research is considered as the manipulation of things, concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalizing to extend, correct, or verify knowledge, whether the knowledge aids in construction of theory or in the practice of an art. It is a systematized effort to gain knowledge. Be it science, mathematics, social science or law. We identify the vacuum in our knowledge and try to address it by asking relevant questions and seeking answers to it.

Role of research is to provide a method for obtaining those answers by inquiringly studying the evidence within the parameters of the scientific method. Research is considered to be more objective, methodical, well-determined scientific process of investigation. Through research, a decision maker can quickly get a summary of current scenario, which improves his information base for making sound decisions affecting future operations of organisation. It is useful to accelerate the decision making power and it alone can make possible the identification of the determinants.

The aim of research is to seek answers to problems through the application of scientific methodology. Every research will have one aim. Another aspect of data is that parts of the data material obviously does not have an existence independent of the researcher, since some is stored within the memory of the researcher or as field notes without meaning to others.

Thirdly a transcription of an interview is never an exact copy of the conversation, which took place. No matter how thoroughly the transcript is done, "translation" has to be done with unavoidable inaccuracies, mistakes and interpretations KVALE When analysing an interview transcript the researcher might feel that he is the only one who is able to use data with the proper caution.

The part of the qualitative data material which has a physical existence, e. The result of both coding and analysis depends exclusively upon the researcher's interpretation of meanings hidden in data.

This too adds to the fact that the qualitative researcher will cling to his data material since he feels at risk if he allows other researchers access to the data. Needless to say, qualitative interpretation encompasses no possibility of reference to exact means of interpretation as quantitative interpretation does.

By allowing other researchers access to data the risk is not only that they interpret the material differently—and by doing this question the quality of the primary analysis—but also that this might conflict with the researcher's loyalty towards respondents.

The researcher is accountable for reporting data without using any statistical means for presenting or legitimating findings. To summarise, there are many different aspects of qualitative techniques, character of data and processing and presentation of data, that the qualitative researcher must comply with as part of his role. On these grounds it must be expected that the researcher will be inclined to cling to his data and resist archiving.

Until recently, only quantitative data were admitted into the Danish Data Archives. This practice is unquestioned by qualitative researchers, who seems inclined to regard their data as very personal belongings.

However, as stated in the beginning of the paper, the Danish Data Archives wants to widen the kind of data material it archives and initiatives are taken to obtain qualitative data, too. It should be stated that this initiative must be regarded in relation to similar initiatives taken by data archives and universities around the world.

For instance Qualidata was founded back in However, the prerequisite for DDA obtaining qualitative materials requires the approval from the Danish research community. At the moment qualitative data is typically stored in the researcher's computer.

However, seen from the perspective of a data archivist this storage medium has obvious limitations. Firstly, data risks obsolescence due to change in software products and program versions. This means that even the researcher who has the data will risk his future access to his own data. Secondly, access to data is limited to the researcher who has collected the data, although a data material is often of great interest to other researchers.

Thirdly, as society we need to document scientific research whether it is quantitative or qualitative. The possible resistance to archiving has been related to three aspects as described above. A prerequisite for obtaining qualitative data is that the archive is capable of complying with demands from researchers—this will define the role of the archive. The challenge for the archive must then be to convince researchers that by archiving their material they are not at risk. In other words, archiving of qualitative data will not make them less suited for acting the role as responsible qualitative researcher.

In the following part it is presented what the archive is able to offer as well as what the archive should be able to offer. To ensure researchers that the integrity of the respondents is respected by the archive, the researcher will be requested to:.

Erase information pointing directly to an individual [ 50 ]. An interview transcript or field note will sometimes contain names of the respondent or individuals mentioned by the respondent as well as information that points at one specific individual. In order to respect the anonymity of the respondents it is therefore necessary to erase or sometimes change information. However, it will have to be pointed out to the researchers that substantial changes in research material will diminish the material's applicability as data source.

A prerequisite for storing qualitative data is, as it is for quantitative data, that data is documented. Proper metadata documentation is the basis for archiving, since documentation is the basis for "making sense" of data—especially considering re-use of data by other researchers, documentation has immediate relevance.

The archive must offer that donor is met with extensive documentation demands such as description of information research tactics—criteria used for choosing respondents, copy of interview guide and other material used as "back up", etc. The preparation of standards for documentation of qualitative research materials will not only be a very challenging job do-but also a very important job.

It is our wish to apply the principles of the Data Documentation Initiative the DDI to archiving of qualitative data, since it is our ambition to provide a "universally supported metadata standard for the social science community" The Norwegian Social Science Data Service , p. The decision to apply the DDI standard to the documentation of qualitative data must be regarded in relation to the decision of other data archives to use the DDI.

From an overall perspective the documentation standards should be based on getting extensive answers to the following questions:. How was the research project done? At the moment we still have to work out the specification for answering these questions sufficiently. But the questions are to be viewed as cornerstones for the removal of barriers to archiving qualitative data.

In the DDA we expect to learn a lot from the experience already gained, e. Until now we have concentrated on obtaining and documenting data, but the archive's aim is also to disseminate data for use as secondary source of information by researchers. Donor is informed whenever material is distributed.

When a researcher hands in material he will be asked to provide a date when his data can be made available for distribution. Some researchers will, of course, not allow access to data at all. A lot of researchers would probably prefer a period where data access is relatively restricted. One reason for this need for restrictions might be due to the researcher's wish to keep information to himself as long as he is using it as basis for research.

The dissemination of quantitative data materials has so far been regulated by six access categories. When a donor hands in a data material, he is obliged to tell what kind of restriction should be applied. Category 1 stands for free access for reuse for anybody and the other five categories are different variations of access restrictions.

Corresponding categories could be used for qualitative materials. In relation to timing before availability one would expect a researcher to use the more restrictive categories at first and then—after some time—be ready to place less restriction on re-use of the material. This routine will be adopted from the current practice of the archive. Donor is told by whom the material is requested and the purpose of the request.

I will have to add that since we at the DDA expect to obtain data as transcripts of interviews. One argument for this procedure is that transcripts are still the commonly used basis for researchers' coding and analysis and therefore it seems straightforward to make this the storage entity.

Another obvious argument for storing transcripts instead of recordings is that a transcript as storage entity has similarity with the present storage entity for quantitative data material both text files. This will make it easier to incorporate this new practice into the routines of the archive. However, alternative storage entities must be considered continuously as practice changes among researchers. The general opinion might be that data sets consisting of numbers in rows and columns are better suited for archiving than qualitative data materials.

Though part of the explanation behind this opinion could be that this is what we are accustomed to—our long tradition of interpretation of numbers in social science. Since the development of data archives cannot be separated from the dominance of quantitative research during the sixties and seventies, data ar chives are now facing a challenging job in transforming to incorporate another kind of data.

Study Implications

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Module 6: The Importance of Research Study Implications. The purpose of research is to inform action. Thus, your study should seek to contextualize its findings within the larger body of research. Research must always be of high quality in order to produce knowledge that is applicable outside of the research setting.

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With advancement of Information Technology, business research can play an important role in the decision making process. 05/25/10 Created by Manish Kumar, internet-buro.mler, DBIT, Dehradun 3 When research is used for decision making, it means we are using the methods of science to the art of management.

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Research Methodology is a way to find out the result of a given problem on a specific matter or problem that is also referred as research problem. In Methodology, researcher uses different criteria for solving/searching the given research problem. Administration can be defined as “activities involved in managing a business, organisation, or institution” (Macmillan Dictionary, , online). Main differences between administration and management relate to objectives, skills and competencies and the level of involvement in producing.

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In explorative research methodology, e.g. in some qualitative research, the independent and the dependent variables might not be identified beforehand. They might not be stated because the researcher does not have a clear idea yet on what is really going on. The Role of Theory in Research. Methodology, Method and Findings (Silvermann ). It is What is then the role of theory is research? Deacon et al. warn us that.